Frequently Asked Questions about Borregaard LignoTech and our feed additives. For more questions, please contact us.
What is special about a ruminant?
It has four stomachs (including the rumen). Microbes in the rumen ferment feeds and produce protein. Microbes degrade protein nitrogen potentially to ammonia.
How does the rumen work?
The rumen is a mobile fermentation vat. Saliva helps maintain optimum pH. Muscular rumen walls mix the contents re-inoculating the feed particles with microbes. Cudding helps break up the plant fibre to speed up microbial access.
What is a bypass protein?
Bypass protein is protein that leaves the rumen not degraded by the microbes.
Why do we feed bypass proteins?
To provide additional amino acids to those provided by microbial protein to meet the required production of the cow.
What is the best bypass protein?
A product that provides amino acids (building blocks of protein) in a ratio that when combined with microbial protein and other by-pass proteins are the most similar to the ratio in milk or meat.
How is efficiency of bypass protein measured?
Samples are placed in nylon mesh bags in the rumen of sheep or cow. Degradation is measured over time. Less degraded means better protection.
How do Borregaard LignoTech's bypass proteins differ from other products on the market?
Extensive trials over many years have shown the bypass protein produced from Borregaard technology to provide consistently high levels or rumen undegraded protein (exceeding 70%), with very high levels of digestibility (exceeding 90%).
Where can I purchase Borregaard LignoTech rumen bypass protein?
Borregaard LignoTech has an extensive network of license producers throughout the world. Send an email to the Borregaard LignoTech contact person in your region and we will inform you of your nearest producer.
What brands are attributed to Borregaard LignoTech rumen bypass technology?
The following brands are available from our licensed producers: SoyPass, a rumen protected soybean meal. RaPass, a rumen protected rape seed meal. SoyPreme, a rumen protected whole soybean, providing both protected protein and protected fat. WeiPass, a rumen protected starch. amiPro, a rumen protected soybean meal.
Are Borregaard ByPass proteins Non-GM?
A selected number of license producers operating in GM-free regions are able to offer Non-GM products. Your regional Borregaard contact person will be able to inform you of availability,
What is Non-Enzymatic Browning Technology?
Non-enzymatic browning is a chemical process that produces a brown colour in foods without the activity of enzymes. The two main forms of non-enzymatic browning are caramelization and the Maillard reaction. Both vary in reaction rate as a function of water activity. The reaction adopted by Borregaard is the Maillard reaction, a chemical reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar, usually requiring the addition of heat. The sugar interacts with the amino acid, producing a sweet odour and caramel flavour.
What is Amino Resin Technology - ART?
Two mechanisms are proposed. In the first mechanism it is the polymer itself which reacts with the protein or carbohydrate to form covalent methylene bridges between the polymer and the protein/carbohydrate, Figure 1. In the reverse reaction the NHR amine is protonated and then displaced by water.
Figure .1 Proposed reaction mechanism for formation of urea formaldehyde polymer, R= acylamine, and for reaction with free amine in protein, R= protein. The same mechanism is valid with hydroxyl and sulfide nucleophiles.
The terminal ends of the urea formaldehyde polymer can be regarded as masked aldehydes, and will be reactive towards nucleophiles like amine (from protein), hydroxyl (from carbohydrates) or sulfides (from protein). The mean molecular weight of the urea formaldehyde polymer and the degree of branching is not known.
In the second proposed mechanism urea formaldehyde acts as a reservoir for formaldehyde. The conditions in the formulation of protein with the polymer , alters the equilibrium to favour depolymerising to give urea and formaldehyde, which can in turn react with a suitable nucleophile. Figure 2 gives the proposed mechanism for the formation of the urea formaldehyde polymer.
Figure 2 Proposed mechanism for the formation of urea formaldehyde polymer, and depolymermisation in reverse. Depolymerisation is probably caused by protonation of amine by the hydroxyl group and subsequent loss of formaldehyde.